One should be comfortable with the fundamentals of HTML before attempting to study CSS3. The content structure of our website is done using HTML, but for styling and placement, CSS is preferred.
To learn more about the latest version of HTML (HTML5), read and refer to our blog post “Ace your WEB DEV abilities with HTML5”.
A document produced in any markup language can have its look, style, and format demonstrated using CSS(Cascading Style Sheets), a language. It is used to style and arrange the design of Web pages. The most recent CSS version is CSS3.
The addition of modules in CSS3, as opposed to CSS2, is a significant development. Because segments are finalized and accepted in pieces, this functionality has the advantage of enabling the specification to be concluded and accepted more quickly. Additionally, this enables the browser to support particular portions of the specification.
In contrast to CSS2, which consisted of a single page, CSS3’s standards are broken down into numerous separate modules, making it much simpler to manage.
With CSS3, designers may now employ unique typefaces like those found in Typecast and Google Fonts. Designers could previously only employ “web-safe fonts” with CSS and CSS2 to ensure that fonts would always show uniformly across all devices.
The creation and formatting of the content structure are done using HTML and CSS3. It is in charge of things like colors, font characteristics, text alignments, background pictures, graphics, and tables, among other things. CSS3 is highly recommended as it offers more design options, which can assist in creating highly interactive online content. When promoting goods and services, the website is the first thing a buyer will see, thus it should be appealing and attractive. CSS3 can help with this.
With CSS3, a designer may construct web pages with lots of content and little code. This new technology adds some intriguing features that improve the page’s aesthetics, ease of use, and overall performance.
Almost every web page uses elements like drop shadows, rounded corners, and gradients. When applied properly, these design improvements can give the site a pleasing appearance. In the past, we had to use a variety of intricate strategies including a lot of coding and HTML elements. Because there was no other way to implement these techniques, we put up with these workarounds. However, CSS3 now makes it possible for us to include these designs directly, creating pages that are faster, simpler, and cleaner. Several of CSS3’s essential modules include Box Model, Replaced content, Box Model, Image values, Selectors, Text effects, Borders and backgrounds, Animations, user experience (UI), multi-column formats, and Transformations in 2D and 3D.
Three methods can be used to integrate CSS.
To apply CSS to HTML components, use the inline: style attribute.
Embedded: A style element may be present in the head element, within which the code may be inserted.
CSS can be imported or linked to using the link element in an external file.
1.) CSS3 is affordable, quick, and supported by the majority of browsers.
2.) Using CSS3, navigable components can be positioned consistently and precisely.
3.) CSS3 makes it simpler to create graphics, which makes it simple to make the site appealing.
4.) It enables the viewing of online videos without the need for external plug-ins.
5.) A web page can be easily customized because it only requires making minor changes to a modular file.
6.) CSS3 controls media queries and supports responsive designs.
Animation and Transition-The appearance and behavior of an element can be changed across numerous keyframes. Thanks to CSS3 animations. While animations can set several points of transition upon various keyframes, transitions give a change from one state to another.
Calculating Values with calc()- You can conduct computations while specifying CSS property values by using the calc() CSS function. It can be used in any situation where length, frequency, angle, time, percentage, number, or integer is permitted.
Syntax: name of property: calc (expression)
Advanced Selectors-CSS selectors that perform a task more complicated than choosing a tag, class, or ID are referred to as advanced selectors. Choosing a certain ID or class for an element or a type of tag within another tag are examples of such selectors, but only when the mouse is hovering over the target.
Generated Content and Counters- CSS counters make it easy to increment and display a number for generated content using CSS.
Gradients-Smooth transitions between two or more specified colors can be displayed using CSS gradients. Two different gradients are described via CSS: Linear Gradients (moves left, right, diagonally, up, down) and Radial Gradients (defined by their center).
Web Fonts-With the use of web fonts, web designers can make use of typefaces/fonts that aren’t already on users’ computers.
Box Sizing- If padding and borders are present, the box-sizing property specifies how to calculate the width and height of an element.
Border Images-One can provide an image to be used in place of the standard border surrounding an element by using the CSS border-image property.
Media Queries-One can use CSS3 media queries to apply CSS rules based on the media type and its capabilities. For distributing a customized stylesheet to various devices, media queries are a common method.
Multiple Backgrounds- A single element can have several backgrounds added to it thanks to CSS3. Layers of the backgrounds are placed on top of one another.
CSS columns-Column-width and column-count values can both be set simultaneously using the CSS property known as columns.
Layouts-Using CSS page layout techniques, we may manipulate the positioning of items on a website. When comparing CSS Grid vs. Flexbox layout, one of the most fundamental and significant distinctions is how they handle rows and columns. Grid is “two-dimensional,” but Flexbox is “one-dimensional,” meaning that Flexbox may only arrange objects either horizontally (in rows) or vertically (in columns) (columns).
Background image and background-size
An HTML element’s background image can be set using the CSS3 background-image property. The size of the background picture for an HTML element is managed by the CSS background-size property.
Text Shadow- Shadow is added to the text by the text-shadow attribute. A list of text shadows separated by commas can be applied using this attribute.
SVN filter Effects-The filter property can be used to set filter effects in CSS3. We can choose any of these from the available filter effects-
blur(), brightness(), contrast(), grayscale(), invert(), opacity(), saturate(), and URL();
Hence, for companies who create and distribute online content and web applications, HTML5 and CSS3 offer a wide range of opportunities. Overall, by utilizing these two tools in the development of your company’s website, you can improve user experience, lay a strong foundation for your SEO and content marketing strategies, and significantly lower the cost of cross-platform web development and support while also expanding your audience and improving web experience.
some other advantages of HTML5 and CSS3 are:
1.)Multiplatform development that is affordable
2.)compatible across a variety of browsers
3.)Ready for search engine optimization
4.)Provides a good user experience
If you want to learn web programming and become a front end, back end, or perhaps a full stack developer, check out our list of the top free resources.
The fact that all of these resources are both high-quality and free is the finest part.
But Today in this blog, w uhu e are going to primarily focus on the front-end part and that too on The Advanced Features of HTML5. In our next blog, we will read more about CSS3
The preferred and the most popular markup language for documents intended to be viewed in a web browser is HTML or HyperText Markup Language. The web is growing on a daily basis and hence knowing HTML is more crucial than ever. It is used for creating web pages and web applications. HTML5 is the 5th version of HTML. With the advanced features of HTML5, it’s not only possible to create better websites, but we can also create dynamic responsive websites. It is used for structuring and displaying content for the World Wide Web.
HTML5 is introduced with new features and is developed to meet the growing demands presented by today’s media, cross-device and mobile internet needs. Because many of its features have been adjusted for access on low-powered devices, like Tablets and Smartphones, we can state that it is an excellent tool for cross-platform mobile app development. HTML5 also offers a common interface to make loading components simpler. For example, HTML5 doesn’t require a Flash plugin because the element will run by itself and is supported by the latest web browsers on PCs and tablets. Well, one of the design objectives for HTML5 is to provide support for multimedia on different mobile devices. To support various tags like audio, video, and canvas. some new syntactic features were added.
HTML 5 was released in 2014 and it was not only a historic year for web designers, UI developers, and web developers but also for the entire world.
New features of HTML5 revolutionized the gadgets industry hugely especially smart devices like phones and televisions.
Here we have some most useful and popular HTML5 features to explore :
Video and audio are the new tags that allow to embed a video in the website.HTML5 video can use CSS and CSS3 to style the video tag. One can change the border, opacity, reflections, gradients, transitions, transformations, and even animations. With HTML5, adding video may be done quickly and without needing to create a video player. This gives the developer time savings and gives the client a better, more cost-effective solution. By providing the code to embed their videos, YouTube also announces video embed. It helps the web to be more involved with multimedia. An audio tag is used to embed any audio on the web.
Example of using the Video tag
<video controls preload>
<source src=“startxlabs.com” type=“video/Ogg” />
<source src=”startxlabs.com” type=“video/mp4” />
<p> Your browser is old. Please try in the latest browser.</p>
Example of Video in HTML
Video output would be something like this
Note: HTML5 supports only .mp4 and .ogv videos.
Example of using Audio tag
<audio autoplay=“autoplay” controls=“controls”>
<source src=“file.ogg” />
<source src=“file.mp3” />
<p>Your browser doesn’t support this feature.</p>
In HTML 5, the SVG element is used for scalable vector graphics. By using the SVG tag, you may animate any shape, like a circle, square, or rectangle, among others.
<svg width=“100” height=“100”>
<circle cx=“50” cy=“50” r=“40” stroke=“green” stroke-width=“4” fill=“yellow” />
Semantic tag collection is the most anticipated one in HTML. Making websites and apps that are user- and search engine-friendly requires the usage of semantic tags. In the past, web page developers would only create columns, rows, and new sections using the div tag. DIV doesn’t give search engines any information about the page or its content, whereas semantic tags do.
Pic 1 – Semantic Layout Structure
The creation of accessible web pages was aided by semantic tags. Accessible sites are created in such a way that they are prepared, planned, and designed suitably for people with disabilities.
4. Header and Footer:
With the new <header> and <footer> tags, there is no longer a need to identify the two elements with a <div> tag.The header is put at the top of the web page and the footer is placed at the bottom. By using <header> and <footer> HTML5 elements, the browser will know what to load first and what to load later.
The header can contain one or more heading elements (<h1> – <h6>), a Logo or icon, or any authorship information.
The Footer can contain Authorship information, Copyright information, Contact information, Back to top links, etc.
Layout of HTML vs HTML5
Example: Below examples illustrate the <header> element in HTML:
|<!DOCTYPE html> |
<h1>This is the heading.</h1>
<h4>This is the sub-heading.</h4>
<p>This is the metadata.</p>
<p><a href=“Servicee.html”>Log In</a></p>
<p><a href=“Our Work.html”>Sign Up</a></p>
<p><a href=“Resources.html”>Contact Us</a></p>
<p><a href=“Contact us.html”>Contact Us</a></p>
Example: Below examples illustrate the <footer> Tag in HTML elements:
|<!DOCTYPE html> |
<title>HTML footer Tag</title>
<p>@abc, Some rights reserved</p>
Just for example
@abc, Some rights reserved
<p><a href=“Servicee.html”>Log In</a></p>
<p><a href=“Our Work.html”>Sign Up</a></p>
<p><a href=“Resources.html”>Contact Us</a></p>
<p><a href=“Contact us.html”>Contact Us</a></p>
<p>Posted by: Hege Refsnes</p>
<p>Contact information: <a href=“mailto:[email protected]”>
The article> tag designates information that is autonomous and self-contained. An article should be comprehensible on its own and be able to be distributed apart from the rest of the website.
A section featuring navigation links, either within the current content or to another document, is denoted by the HTML tag “nav”. Menus, tables of contents, and indexes are a few examples of navigation links. The nav> tag is a recent addition to HTML5. Only the most important blocks of navigation links are allowed.
A document’s sections are specified using the HTML “section” tag. The use of the HTML < section> tag is necessary because when the material is placed on a web page, it may include numerous chapters, headers, footers, or other parts.
<p>Hope you enjoy these articles on some of the
popular cities in the world.</p>
<p>The capital and largest city of the UK is London, which is also home to a number of top-notch museums and tourist destinations, including the London Eye, the London Bridge, the British Museum, and others. London is the second most visited city in the world, with 19.83 million people visiting it annually.</p>
<p>The city of Paris is among the most visited in the world and is arguably the most well-known. In 2018, Paris welcomed about 17.44 million travelers. The Arc de Triomphe, the Champs-Élysées, and the Eiffel Tower are a few of Paris’ most well-known tourist destinations.</p>
The aside> element is utilized to highlight or briefly discuss the main object of the web page. It essentially identifies the information that is pertinent to the main page’s content but does not directly advance its purpose. The <aside> tag primarily provides author details, links, relevant content, etc.
<p>I along with my friend visited Shimla this winter. The weather was nice, and Shimla was amazing! I had a great winter and saw amazing Snowfall. </p>
<p>Shimla tourism encompasses a complete experience, where entertainment, culture, and sights like British architecture reminiscent of the colonial era, temples, and palaces could be spotted interspersed on its landscape.</p>
The tag <main> is used to hold the page’s unique content and is used to contain the page’s main content. It is not acceptable to use more than one main tag in a document, and this tag cannot be contained inside of any article, aside, the footer, or header tags. It excludes the header, footer, and navigation bar.
Earlier, there was no option to include a figure and a caption for it. However, it is now semantically possible to embed an image in a page with its caption thanks to the introduction of the figure and fig caption.
<img src=”startxlabs.jpg” alt=”Startxlabs” />
<p>This is the logo of our organisation</p>
Here are a few more newly introduced tags for making websites responsive and dynamic-
The contact information for the creator/owner of a document or article is defined via the <address> tag. Contact details may include an email address, website, street location, telephone number, social media account, etc.
Written by <a href=”[email protected]“>Prachi Rikhari</a>.<br>
Visit us at:<br>
A form input control is represented in an HTML page via the HTML <input> tag. With the help of this form input control, users can enter data and interact with a website or application. Consider an HTML form with three input fields, two text fields, and one submission button.
Syntax-: <input type=”email”>
HTML’s canvas tag is a brand-new addition in HTML5. It is utilised to quickly draw the graphics. It can be applied to game graphics, rendering graphs, and visual images.
Obtaining a user’s geographic location requires the HTML Geolocation API. Using this API, user’s latitude and longitude can be found.
3.) Drag/drop API
Applications can use browser drag-and-drop functionality with HTML Drag and Drop interfaces.
14.Most Popular HTML5 Responsive Design Framework: Bootstrap
Bootstrap, created by programmers at Twitter, has now become the forefather of frameworks for responsive web design. It is used to build complicated web applications and responsive mobile-first websites that work on all sizes of devices. Before being made freely available as an open source framework, Bootstrap was originally developed by the designers and developers at Twitter and utilised as the Twitter Blueprint. Bootstrap is created and maintained at Github, and its incredible community keeps it current with the best in web design by releasing frequent updates.
The Sass & Less CSS preprocessors, numerous unique HTML and CSS elements, jQuery plugins, and many more features are supported by Bootstrap.
The field Web designing and development is a science and an art that depends on the designers’ ingenuity as well as the most recent developments in tools and technology. Without proper tools, libraries, and frameworks, a creative designer may not succeed successfully or may not generate items that are in demand in the market. Hence, The framework should be carefully chosen after thorough research as it plays a significant part in the complete web design workflow. The HTML5 frameworks covered in this blog guarantee the use of cutting-edge web design techniques and make responsive web creation simple.
Since HTML is more interesting when combined with CSS, it is recommended to learn HTML and CSS together. CSS3 is easy to learn, and if you want more control over the appearance of your website, it is a must. Along with HTML, CSS3 works beautifully for building modern and high-end web pages and websites, and then for adding dynamic functionality to web pages,
Read and refer to our blog “Features and Advantages of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS 3)” to learn more about CSS 3.
A website you build will be browsed using different types of browsers by different people across the world. Each browser has its different versions. So if you need your website to be successfully browsed by people without any inconvenience, it should be compatible with different versions of the different browsers. What makes the website incompatible? There are so many issues every developer faces while developing a website that makes it incompatible with the browsers. In this article, we will discuss the 7 common cross-browser issues faced by the developers.
HTML or CSS Code Specific Errors
Cross-browser testing involves the proper validation of HTML and CSS codes. Invalid codes can be a major problem during the testing. Cross-browser testing expects valid codes since different browsers are going to read and handle them. Developers may have a possibility of making very negligible errors as simple as not closing the tags. Some browsers may auto-correct this, but some browsers cannot. Browsers such as Firefox and Chrome can detect such issues and can resolve them, but some other browsers cannot resolve such issues by themselves.
There are certain issues that are not considered errors, but they behave differently with different browsers. That’s why we should be careful while writing our code. Such kind of issues is discussed below.
Validation of HTML involves ensuring whether all the tags are properly closed, whether the tags are used correctly according to their purpose, whether DOCTYPE is used, and more. CSS Validation is also the same, whether property names and values are properly spelled, whether curly braces are correctly matched, and so on. To resolve this issue, it is always recommended to use HTML and CSS code validating tools such as W3C HTML Validator and Jigsaw CSS Validator.
Unavailable CSS Resets
Every browser possesses a specific design layout or some basic styles of CSS that is imposed on the website when opened in it, by default. So, if a website wants to use its specific layout, then it has to override the already available, default layout. Otherwise, the website will be rendered in a different way that depends upon the currently used browser. So, to avoid this a CSS reset style sheet can be used on your web page to ensure whether the browser you are using starts its rendering with the same set of basic rules. Some of the commonly used CSS reset style sheets are HTML5Reset, Eric Meyers CSS Reset, and Normalize.css. Twitter Bootstrapped and many other famous front-end frameworks don’t need an external reset as they already have a reset with them.
Read our article on Getting started with React Native Flexbox Layout
Each browser has its specific CSS style based on the vendor. Whenever the browser tries to introduce a new CSS feature, it will be coded based on the vendor-specific style. It is essential to avoid the issues of cross-browser compatibility. Different prefixes are used for different browsers to enable the browser vendors to apply their version of the CSS feature. Some of the prefixes are,
By implementing CSS Resets, it is possible to remove the default browser designs and to apply our designs. However, this can result in compatibility issues because of adding a non-responsive design (doesn’t looking good in mobile browsers) or because of the inability of certain browsers or their versions to support certain layouts. Layout features don’t provide efficient fallbacks because of simple colors, gradients, or shadows. However, ignoring them completely will make your entire design fall down. It is suggested to use tools like CSS grids and Flexbox when you are working with modern layouts for your website. Most of the modern browsers of today’s age extend their support to these tools and are most effective to use by developers.
It is always recommended to use feature detection as it can detect whether a browser can support the layout features you are going to use. You should be careful while selecting the layout features according to the result you are expecting. For implementing feature detection tests, we can use @supports, a newly introduced feature in CSS.
As we know, the very first line in every HTML document will be the Doctype-!DOCTYPE HTML. Missing this single line can determine your entire website. This line determines whether your website will be cleanly rendered or strangely rendered. Whenever a browser behaves differently, make sure to check your Doctype, because missing it may result in faulty rendering.
Generally, a browser operates in two ways or modes. They are Strict Mode and Quirks Mode. Strict Mode performs stricter code checks according to the W3C standards and Quirks Mode doesn’t perform such stricter error checks. Whenever an HTML document misses the doctype line, the browser will go into Quirks Mode. For example, Internet Explorer will go into Quirks mode when it fails to encounter the DOCTYPE and it would have its own web standards in a quite different way. This results in making the webpage display incorrectly and makes some of the tags become unresponsive.
These are the five most common cross-browser issues every developer faces. Apart from these issues, always make sure to check whether the browser is outdated.
Cross-browser testing is essential to check whether your web apps and websites run efficiently on different browsers. Websites have to undergo cross-browser testing, in order to be browsed without any compatibility issues on different browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Edge, and Safari and on different OS combinations.
Cross-browser testing enables you to specifically find out the errors and issues on your website and let you debug those errors quickly. There are two ways of performing cross-browser testing. They are manual testing and online testing. Manual testing involves testing the websites manually on all browsers. For that, you need different browsers to be installed on your device. This process consumes a lot of time and sometimes it is inefficient because of different versions of the browsers.
Another yet powerful method is testing through tools available online. This method involves testing the website on an online testing tool that has different browsers along with different versions on their servers. This method saves your time as well your effort and money and makes the testing process simple. There are some tools available online to test your website for cross-browser compatibility. One such tool is the Lambda test.
LambdaTest is an online cross-browser compatibility testing tool, that allows your website to be tested across locally or publicly hosted websites and on more than 2000 mobiles and browsers running on a real OS. It also lets you debug codes using the integrated debug tools in real-time. LambdaTest provides a lot of features along with browser testing such as,
LambdaTest also allows integration with third-party apps. This tool remains helpful for many to test their websites and to improve the performance of their websites and web applications.
TestingBot is another online tool that provides testing on more than 2300 browsers and devices in the cloud. This tool allows both manual and automated testing to test your websites and applications. TestingBot provides features such as
Testing on Real Devices
The last and essential thing to do is to test your website on real machines for compatibility issues. The website should be tested on real devices with real browsers by real users. Your website will be tested using the native features of a device only by testing it on the real devices and also provides a realistic environment for testing.
Features such as screen resolutions, hardware features like Bluetooth, Wifi, GPS, and push notifications can be tested quickly as the testing is performed in real-time using the real devices.
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